Existentialism is a term applied to the work of certain late 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual. In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude" or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience.
Soren Kierkegaard -
he is considered as first existentialist philosopher with this statement: "each individual-not society or religion-is solely responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely (authentically)."
Every individual has his own uniqueness and individuality that needs to nurture and develop through years. The moment a man exists in this world is the moment that he is starting building his own identity to be unique and different to others. This comes through self-esteem and realizations as part of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Jean-Paul Sartre -
He is known as first prominent existentialist philosopher to adopt the term as a self-description: "all existentialists have in common is the fundamental doctrine that existence precedes essence."
Individuals as mentioned above have their own uniqueness that can develop through years and this may lead to self-description. Man will know his essence when the times he acknowledge himself as human being and has purpose to live according to his desire.
Existentialism is a Humanism: "...man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world—and defines himself afterwards."
A person can choose to act in a different way, and to be a good person instead of a cruel person. Here it is also clear that since humans can choose to be either cruel or good, they are, in fact, neither of these things essentially.
he thought that defining existentialism has been relatively difficult, and he argues that it is better understood as a general approach used to reject certain systematic philosophies rather than as a systematic philosophy itself.
It is very difficult to understand existentialism if you will not focus on individual identity. Existentialism explain individual's freedom to live to their fullest.. without other interruptions and barriers. It is right to understand the essence of every individual and their purpose in this world why they exist through self-realization and again, it is part of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
he claimed that "there is only one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide"
Suicidal is one of tremendous disasters in every human being because of quitting the game of life. The shorten period of existence makes shorten period of self realization. In Existentialism, every individual helps to become alive and survivor in life because it can explain the value of man in this world.
The possibility of having everything meaningful breakdown poses a threat of quietism, which is inherently against the existentialist philosophy. It has been said that the possibility of suicide makes all humans existentialists.
is an important philosopher in both fields, but also the existentialist insistence on the inherent meaninglessness of the world. Existentialist philosophers often stress the importance of Angst as signifying the absolute lack of any objective ground for action, a move that is often reduced to a moral or an existential nihilism. "A primary cause of confusion!"
Opposite to the philosophy of Darwin, Nietzche believes that a man inherent nothing in this world but at a time of his realization, he will gain his existence and essence in land.